Search This Blog

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Planning for System Integration and Testing

9.2.2 System Integration and Test Plan – The purpose of the System Integration and Test Plan (SITP) is to define the step by step process for combining components into assemblies, assemblies into subsystems and subsystems into the system. It is also necessary to define at what level software is integrated and the levels for conducting verification of software and hardware. Because of the intimate relationship of the verification matrix to the system integration and test it is recommended that the SITP be developed before the verification matrix is deemed complete.
The SITP defines the buildup of functionality and the best approach is usually to build from the lowest complexity to higher complexity. Thus, the first steps in integration are the lowest levels of functionality; e.g. backplanes, operating systems and electrical interfaces. Then add increasing functionality such as device drivers, functional interfaces, more complex functions and modes. Finally implement system threads such as major processing paths, error detection paths and end-to-end threads. Integration typically happens in two phases: hardware to hardware and software to hardware. This is because software configured item testing often needs operational hardware to be valid. Two general principles to follow are: test functionality and performance at the lowest level possible and, if it can be avoided, do not integrate any hardware or software whose functionality and performance has not been verified. It isn’t always possible to follow these principles, e.g. sometimes software must be integrated with hardware before either can be meaningfully tested.
One objective of the SITP is to define a plan that avoids as much as possible having to disassemble the system to implement fixes to problems identified in testing. A good approach is to integrate risk mitigation into the SIPT. For example, there is often a vast difference between the impact of an electrical design problem and a mechanical or optical design problem. Some electrical design or fabrication problems discovered in I & T of an engineering model can be corrected with temporary fixes (“green wires”) and I & T can be continued with minimal delay. However, a serious mechanical or optical problem found in the late stages of testing, e.g. in a final system level vibration test, can take months to fix due to the time it takes to redesign and fabricate mechanical or optical parts and conduct the necessary regression testing. Sometimes constructing special test fixtures for early verification of the performance of mechanical, electro-mechanical or optical assemblies is good insurance against discovering design problems in the final stages of I & T.
The integration plan can be described with an integration flow chart or with a table listing the integration steps in order. An integration flow chart graphically illustrates the components that make up each assembly, the assemblies that make up each subsystem etc. Preparing the SITP is an activity that benefits from close cooperation among system engineers, software engineers, test engineers and manufacturing engineers. For example, system engineers typically define the top level integration flow for engineering models using guidelines listed above. Manufacturing engineers typically define the detailed integration flow to be used for manufacturing prototypes and production models. If the system engineers use the same type of documentation for defining the flow for the engineering model that manufacturing engineers use then it is likely that the same documentation can be edited and expanded by manufacturing engineers for their purposes.
It should be expected that problems will be identified during system I & T. Therefore processes for reporting and resolving failures should be part of an organizations standard processes and procedures. System I & T schedules should have contingency for resolving problems. Risk mitigation plans should be part of the SITP and be in place for I & T; such as having adequate supplies of spare parts or even spare subsystems for long lead time and high risk items.
System integration is complete when a defined subset of system level functional tests has been informally run and passed, all failure reports are closed out and all system and design baseline databases have been updated. The final products from system integration include the Test Reports, Failure Reports and the following updated documentation:
  • Rebaselined System Definition
    • Requirements documents and ICDs
    • Test Architecture Definition
    • Test Plans
    • Test Procedures
  • Rebaselined Design Documentation
    • Hardware Design Drawings
    • Fabrication Procedures
    • Formal Release of Software including Build Procedures and a Version Description Document
    • System Description Document
    • TPM Metrics
It is good practice to gate integration closeout with a Test Readiness Review (TRR) to review the hardware/software integration results, ensure the system is ready to enter formal engineering or development model verification testing and that all test procedures are complete and in compliance with test plans. On large systems it is beneficial to hold a TRR for each subsystem or line replaceable unit (LRU) before holding the system level TRR.
9.2.3 Test Architecture Definition and Test Plans and Procedures – The SITP defines the tests that are to be conducted to verify performance at appropriate levels of the system hierarchy. Having defined the tests and test flow it is necessary to define the test equipment and the plans and procedures to be used to conduct the tests. Different organizations may have different names for the documentation defining test equipment and plans. Here the document defining the test fixtures, test equipment and test software is called the Test Architecture Definition. The test architecture definition should include the test requirements traceability database and test system and subsystems specifications.
Test Plans define the approach to be taken in each test; i.e. what tests are to be run, the order of the tests, the hardware and software equipment to be used and the data that is to be collected and analyzed. Test Plans should define the entry criteria to start tests, suspension criteria to be used during tests and accept/reject criteria for test results.
Test Procedures are the detailed step by step documentation to be followed in carrying out the tests and documenting the test results defined in the Test Plans. Other terminologies include a System Test Methodology Plan that describes how the system is to be tested and a System Test Plan that describes what is to be tested. Document terminology is not important; what is important is defining and documenting the verification process rigorously.
Designing, developing and validating the test equipment and test procedures for a complex system is nearly as complex as designing and developing the system and warrants a thorough systems engineering effort. Neglecting to put sufficient emphasis or resources on these tasks can result in delays of readiness of the test equipment or procedures and risks serious problems in testing due to inadequate test equipment or processes. Sound systems engineering practices treat test equipment and test procedure development as deserving the same disciplined effort and modern methods as used for the system under development.
The complexity of system test equipment and system testing drives the need for disciplined system engineering methods and is the reason for developing test related documentation in the layers of SITP, Test Architecture Definition, Test Plans and finally Test Procedures. The lower complexity top level layers are reviewed and validated before developing the more complex lower levels. This approach abstracts detail in the top levels making it feasible to conduct reviews and validate accuracy of work without getting lost in the details of the final documentation.
The principle of avoiding having to redo anything that has been done before also applies to developing the Test Architecture Definition, Test Plans and Test Procedures. This means designing the system to be able to be tested using existing test facilities and equipment where this does not compromise meeting system specifications. When existing equipment is inadequate then strive to find commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware and software for the test equipment. If it is necessary to design new special purpose test equipment then consider whether future system tests are likely to require similar new special purpose designs. If so it may be wise to use pattern base systems engineering for the test equipment as well as the system.
Where possible use test methodologies and test procedures that have been validated through prior use. If changes are necessary developing Test Plans and Procedures by editing documentation from previous system test programs is likely to be faster, less costly and less prone to errors than writing new plans. Sometimes test standards are available from government agencies.
9.2.4 Test Data Analysis – Data collected during systems tests often requires considerable analysis in order to determine if performance is compliant with requirements. The quantity and types of data analysis needed should be identified in the test plans and the actions needed to accomplish this analysis are to be included in the test procedures. Often special software is needed to analyze test data. This software must be developed in parallel with other system software since it must be integrated with test equipment and validated by the time the system completes integration. Also some special test and data analysis software may be needed in subsystem tests during integration. Careful planning and scheduling is necessary to avoid project delays due to data analysis procedures and software not being complete and validated by the time it is needed for system tests.


  1. good answer...
    for more stuff related to software testing u can also visit at
    it will definitely help u...

  2. Greate post. Keep posting such kind of info on your page.
    Im really impressed by it.
    Hi there, You've done a fantastic job. I'll
    definitely digg it and in my view recommend to my friends.
    I'm confident they'll be benefited from this website.

    Feel free to visit my web site; Visit website

  3. I blog quite often and I seriously thank you for your information.
    This article has really peaked my interest. I will
    book mark your blog and keep checking for
    new information about once per week. I opted
    in for your RSS feed too.

    my blog :: More info

  4. I think this is one of the most significant information for me.
    And i'm glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

    Here is my web page - click url

  5. Hey! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be okay. I'm undoubtedly enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.

    Here is my site: click url

  6. This is a good tip especially to those fresh to the blogosphere.
    Short but very precise information… Appreciate your sharing this one.

    A must read post!

    Here is my web site :: website link

  7. It's amazing to go to see this website and reading the views of all mates about this piece of writing, while I am also zealous of getting know-how.

    Check out my web-site More info

  8. This paragraph will help the internet viewers for creating new web site
    or even a weblog from start to end.

    My web page click here

  9. Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is magnificent, as well
    as the content!

    Feel free to visit my page :: corporate it procurement Kwazulu Natal

  10. I'm curious to find out what blog platform you are working with? I'm experiencing some small
    security problems with my latest website and I'd like to find something more safeguarded. Do you have any solutions?

    My web site Visit Url

  11. What i do not understood is actually how you're now not actually a lot more smartly-favored than you may be right now. You are very intelligent. You understand therefore considerably in terms of this matter, made me for my part believe it from numerous numerous angles. Its like men and women don't seem to be involved unless it
    is one thing to do with Lady gaga! Your individual stuffs nice.
    At all times deal with it up!

    my blog post ... Infromtion site

  12. I'm really impressed with your writing talents and also with the format for your weblog. Is that this a paid theme or did you modify it your self? Either way stay up the nice quality writing, it's uncommon to
    peer a great weblog like this one today..

    Take a look at my webpage - More info

  13. Hello! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering if you knew where
    I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form?
    I'm using the same blog platform as yours and I'm having trouble finding one?

    Thanks a lot!

    My blog post ... website

  14. Every weekend i used to pay a visit this
    site, because i wish for enjoyment, since this this web page conations truly
    pleasant funny data too.

    My blog ... click here

  15. These are in fact enormous ideas in about blogging.
    You have touched some fastidious factors here. Any way keep up

    my homepage - website

  16. Very quickly this site will be famous amid all blogging users, due to it's fastidious posts

    Review my site :: adventure sports photography Gauteng

  17. Hi, I do think this is an excellent website.
    I stumbledupon it ;) I will return once again since I saved as
    a favorite it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be
    rich and continue to help other people.

  18. After I initially left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new
    comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the
    same comment. There has to be an easy method you are able to
    remove me from that service? Cheers!

    my web-site: click url

  19. I am sure this piece of writing has touched all the internet viewers, its really really
    nice post on building up new webpage.

    my website - Accountants on Mission

  20. Thanks on your marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it, you happen
    to be a great author.I will ensure that I bookmark your blog and definitely will come back
    in the foreseeable future. I want to encourage one to continue
    your great posts, have a nice holiday weekend!

    Look at my homepage :: first aid kits Johannesburg

  21. What's up, constantly i used to check weblog posts here early in the morning, because i like to find out more and more.

    Also visit my web page: wedding photography Cape Town

  22. I visited many sites however the audio quality
    for audio songs present at this site is actually wonderful.

    my webpage: customised art Johannesburg

  23. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it's time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you few interesting things or advice. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read even more things about it!

    Feel free to visit my webpage ... website

  24. Hello, all is gοing perfeсtly here and ofcourse eνery one is shаring factѕ, that's actually excellent, keep up writing.

    Here is my web page

  25. Yоuг ρost has confіrmed nеcessaгy to us.
    ӏt’s very еԁucatiοnal and уοu're simply certainly extremely well-informed of this type. You have exposed my eyes to varying thoughts about this kind of topic using intriguing, notable and strong content.

    Feel free to surf to my weblog ... buy viagra
    Feel free to surf my web-site : buy viagra

  26. Howdy would you mind letting me know which webhost you're using? I've loaded your blog in
    3 different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most.
    Can you recommend a good web hosting provider at a fair
    price? Cheers, I appreciate it!

    my web-site: online graduate certificates

  27. An imprеssive shаre! ӏ've just forwarded this onto a colleague who has been conducting a little research on this. And he actually bought me breakfast due to the fact that I discovered it for him... lol. So let me reword this.... Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending some time to talk about this subject here on your blog.

    my webpage Resistor Derating

  28. Hοωdy! Would уоu mind if I
    sharе youг blog with my mуsрасe grοup?
    Τhеrе's a lot of folks that I think would really enjoy your content. Please let me know. Many thanks

    My web site: Voltage Dependent resistor

  29. When I originally commented I clicked the "Notify me when new comments are added" checkbox and now each time a comment is added
    I get four emails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove me from
    that service? Many thanks!

    Also visit my web site :: Click this Site

  30. Excellent article. Keep posting such kind of information on your
    site. Im really impressed by your site.
    Hello there, You have performed a fantastic job.

    I will definitely digg it and in my view suggest to my friends.
    I'm confident they will be benefited from this site.

    Feel free to visit my blog; visit this site

  31. Hi there friends, how is the whole thing, and what you
    would like to say regarding this paragraph, in my view its truly remarkable in support of me.

    my webpage ... click this site

  32. These are in fact great ideas in concerning blogging.
    You have touched some pleasant things here. Any way keep
    up wrinting.

    Feel free to surf to my web blog - Click here

  33. Hello, i feel that i saw you visited my website thus i
    got here to go back the want?.I'm trying to find issues to enhance my website!I guess its ok to use a few of your concepts!!

    Look into my homepage ... More information

  34. Wonderful work! This is the type of information that should be shared
    around the internet. Shame on Google for now not positioning this publish upper!
    Come on over and visit my web site . Thank you =)

    My web-site :: more info

  35. At this time I am going away to do my breakfast, after having my breakfast coming over again to read other news.

    My web-site :: more info

  36. Fantastіc ρost howevеr , I ωаs wоndering іf you
    сould wrіte a litte mοre on this subjeсt?
    I'd be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Many thanks!

    Here is my web site; potentiometers

  37. My spоuse and I ѕtumbled οveг
    here ԁifferent web ρage anԁ thought I might as well cheсk
    things out. I likе what I see so i am juѕt
    following you. Lοok forwаrd to looking οver your wеb ρage repeatеdly.

    Also vіsіt my ωeb-sіte :: Power Rating Resistor

  38. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The
    words in your article seem to be running off the screen in Opera.
    I'm not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with web browser compatibility but I figured I'd post to let you know.
    The design and style look great though! Hope you get the issue fixed soon.

    home security store

  39. Ηello there! Do уοu usе Tωіtter?
    I'd like to follow you if that would be okay. I'm undoubtedlу enϳoying your blοg
    and look forwаrԁ to new updateѕ.

    My web blog:

  40. Very nice artісle, tоtallу ωhat I needed.

    Feel fгeе tо ѵisit my weblοg

  41. Τhanks for the auspiciouѕ writeup. It аctually used tο be a entertainment aссοunt
    it. Glanсe aԁvanceԁ to faг introduced agreeable frοm you!
    Вy thе way, how сan we kеep up a corгеѕрondence?

    Alѕo viѕit my ωebpage - wire wound resistor

  42. The price sounded superb but as in all things if it seems too excellent to generally be correct it almost certainly is.

    Upon glimpsing his fearful visage, most retain their distance, thankfully unaware that his touch bears a sinister
    scourge. Now anyone has heard that in advance of quite a few situations at
    their Martial Arts faculty, but right until you've got basically performed it inside a real struggle, you don't really feel

    Here is my blog post ... league of Legends hacks

  43. If some one wishеs to be updated with most recent technologіes
    after that he must be pay a viѕit thіs web page and bе uр to date

    My ωebsite :: resistοr color code ()

  44. I every time used to гead piece of ωriting in news paрerѕ but nоw as I am a user
    of net thus from noω Ӏ am using net
    for articlеs, thanks to web.

    Feel free to visit mу hοmepagе; Potentiometers - Sbe.phoebus.Ca -

  45. I'm pretty pleased to find this website. I need to to thank you for your time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely appreciated every bit of it and I have you book-marked to check out new things in your site.

    Also visit my webpage :: varistors

  46. Thanκs for ones marѵelous рοstіng!
    I гeallу enjoуed rеаdіng
    it, you wіll be a great аuthor. І will be sure to boοkmаrκ
    уour blоg аnd maу cοme bacκ latеr on.
    I wаnt to encouragе you to contіnuе yοuг greаt posts,
    havе а nice day!

    My web ѕіtе - рower rating - -

  47. All I know is what appeared on the film which was dexter missouri swimming pool developed after the flight.
    If President Obama's January 21 Memoranda to promote Open Government and strengthen the Freedom of Information Act first passed in 1966 and strengthened in 1974. Mr Payne dexter missouri swimming pool nodded A friend of mine has always wanted to start a small business under the right circumstance. If you are interested in purchasing the book, with no editing.

  48. Sagacity Software offer a complete range of industry-leading services like System Integration Implementation, system integration software in India.

  49. Sagacity Software provides Top System Integration Services in India,US,Uk and System Integration, Application and System Integration Implementation, and Support Upgrades and Migrations.

  50. System integration is very important. Thanks for sharing useful points regards System Integration.
    IT System Integration
    System Integration Companies

  51. Thanks for sharing information about System Integration Companies.
    System Integration Companies