The Manager’s Guide contains blog posts on Leadership and Systems Engineering. The Leadership posts provide a self-study course in leadership for managers and for workers who wish to prepare themselves for management. The articles address motivating people and improving processes. People and processes are common to every type of organization so the course applies to any organization. The older posts cover Systems Engineering and can be found in the archive or by searching on key words.
organizations operate in a global environment and must be world class to
survive. Even if your organization doesn't operate in a global environment it
should have a goal of being world class for the benefit of its stakeholders.
The topics to be discussed for developing a world class organization include:
•Recruiting to build strengths
•Achieving low staff turnover
•Developing your successor
•Matching people to jobs
•Managing the manager’s time and helping the workers
manage their time
three topics are included in this lecture and the third and fourth topics are
covered in Lectures 18 -20.
Recruiting to build
strengths and Achieving Low Staff Turnover
Your recruiting objectives
•To “raise the batting average” of the organization
•To achieve low staff turnover
organization deserves a “raise the batting average” objective. (Here the term
“batting average” refers to the average capability of the organization so that
to raise the batting average means hiring someone with skills and/or experience
that exceed the average of the organization.) It leads to a more successful
organization and thereby supports all stakeholders. People like working with
highly capable people so such people are generally welcomed into the
organization, which helps satisfy the new worker’s need for belonginess. People
are inspired and often mentored by highly capable people so that highly capable
people help lift performance beyond just their own contribution. If everyone is
treated fairly and there is a sound career development process there should be
few ego problems or career concerns over bringing in people that raise the
building a world class organization by recruiting exceptional people that
strengthen the organization is a superior approach to Jack Welch’s approach of
firing those whose performance lowers the batting average of the organization.
(Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric required his senior managers to
get rid of the bottom 10% of their subordinate managers each year.)This is
because Welch’s approach promotes competition to survive, which inhibits
teamwork and diverts worker’s attention from their job to their survival. This
results in a fear environment, which appears to have high performance, but
actually has lower performance than the organization is capable of if fear is
removed and replaced with an environment of cooperation and commitment.
look at why achieving low turnover is important. Let’s take a very conservative
example of an organization where the average wage is $25 per hour. The
recruiting and orientation training costs for a knowledge worker is typically
about equal to one year’s salary. Figure 6 shows the costs for typical turnover
rates as a function of the organization size assuming the cost of replacing a
worker is equal to one year’s salary.
Figure 6 Annual turnover cost
for organizations with turnover rates of 2, 4, or 6%.
The difference between a
turnover rate of 2% and 4% for an organization of 100 people is $90,000 per
year. That difference is equal to spending $900 per person on training or new
software each year. This example is conservative because it ignores the hidden
costs related to disruption of work, the diversion of manager’s attention from
other critical activities and the diversion of workers attention associated
with people leaving and new people being assimilated.
An effective leader has a goal
of maintaining turnover close to the limit imposed by retirement, promotions
out of the organization and the occasional need to replace a bad worker. This
limit is usually between 1 and 2 % and it can be achieved if the managers are
truly effective as defined in this course. Turnover rate is also dependent on
effective recruiting. A low rate cannot be achieved if an organization is
growing and the recruiting process doesn’t add workers that match needs and
stay with the organization for the long term 80% of the time or more.
The recruiting process is
dependent upon the style of the manager and the culture of the enterprise so I
cannot claim to describe the only correct way to recruit. I can however
describe a recruiting process that has proven to work and to support low
turnover in organizations I have managed.
Example of Effective Recruiting Process
open positions thoroughly with human resources so that they can determine if
normal job applicants are likely to fill needs, or if new ads are needed, or if
help from professional staffing organizations (headhunters) is required
must prescreen resumes provided by human resources to identify high potential
or designee should prescreen high potential candidates via phone calls before
they are brought in for an interview
–Does candidate understand job opening and local area?
–Does the manager receive positive “vibes” from the
–Will candidate likely accept if ultimately given offer?
(e.g Can the candidate relocate if necessary or does a divorce decree prevent
human resources meets the candidate begin the in-house interview with a group
interview to cover common questions- this should take 45 - 60 min and involve
all workers and managers scheduled to interview the candidate.
–Responsible manager defines the open job for the
candidate and the group so that everyone understands what is expected of the
–Candidate answers general questions about education,
experience, etc. so that these questions are ask and answered only once and
everyone hears the same answers
meetings with at least four managers and likely coworkers
–Typically 45 - 60 minutes each
offsite with two or three senior people
–This is critical as it often leads the candidate to
reveal information that would never be provided in formal interviews
a group discussion at end of day with all the interviewers to discuss what each
has learned in the private interview and make an offer/no offer decision
–Reach consensus or don’t hire
–The senior manager must be responsible for preventing
the group from only hiring clones of themselves. Diversity of many types is
necessary and the group will accept diversity if it is discussed and a
consensus is reached
resources verifies resume (e.g. Claimed education and former employers) and
references, works with the manager to determine an appropriate salary and makes
formal job offer or informs candidate of rejection
indicates that the group meetings at the beginning and after the interview and
the offsite lunch are critical for the reasons explained in the description
above. It is also essential that the interviewers not be working in a fear
environment. Otherwise they may provide the feedback they think the manager
wants rather than being objective and speaking up when they disagree with the
manager or each other.
The need for diversity needs further
explanation. Here diversity means diversity in thinking and working style as
well as diversity of race, gender and national origin. In general,
organizations of people that have similar cultural behavior work smoothly but
if there is no one to offer different views then the organization tends to be
restricted in thinking. Such an organization of cultural clones isn’t as
effective as an organization having a few members that provide alternative views
that are outside the bounds of the homogeneous culture. Hiring people whose
thinking and working style deviate from that of the rest of the organization is
always a risk. The wrong person can create dissention and some people just
won’t be happy being in a culture different from their own. The objective is to
find a few people that are able to work well with the group and yet offer views
divergent from the group’s usual thinking.
A key element in recruiting the very best people
over the long term is to develop a network of people that are always on the
lookout for exceptionally capable young people. The network typically includes
people in the organization with a wide circle of friends and associates in
other organizations, consultants (particularly university professors),
customers, suppliers and others that have the opportunity to interact with
young people having the skills needed by your organization. Developing and
tending such a network takes time but the payoff is finding the exceptional
young people that can lift your organization’s performance to world class
levels almost by themselves. Once you have attracted a few exceptional people
and provided them a positive environment for their work they attract other
You must be well on your way to developing a
highly effective organization in order for people in your skills identification
network to feel comfortable in recommending exceptional people to you and for
you to be able to recruit such people. If your organization doesn’t have a good
reputation then it is difficult to recruit top talent until you have fixed many
of the organization’s problems. You can still attract top people by being
honest with them, convincing them you have a plan to fix the problems and
giving them an incentive to be part of your plan. Don’t settle for less skilled
people because your organization has problems; work harder to attract top
people that become part of the solution.
Demonstrating effective leadership of a
successful organization is one ingredient in preparing yourself for promotion
to more responsible positions. Another is having an obvious successor so that
your current organization can continue to be successful if you move on. An
effective leader is proactive and prepares a successor so that it is apparent
to others that the candidate is ready. A way to accomplish this is to give the
candidate leadership tasks once you are convinced they are ready and can
succeed in leadership tasks.
You can develop a successor via recruiting,
mentoring or the natural maturation of one of your subordinates. The path isn’t
important unless the culture of your enterprise favors one path over another,
e.g. some cultures prefer to promote only from within. If your enterprises has
such a culture and you recruit your successor you must be prepared to mentor
this person for the time it takes for the new person to be considered eligible
The most important advice I can give from my
experience is to make sure the person you pick is as capable of managing your
organization as you, or preferably more capable than you. Giving your candidate
leadership tasks enable you and others to evaluate the candidate’s capabilities
and readiness for promotion. If the candidate fails to meet your expectations
in two or more such assignments then review both the assignments and your
assessment of the candidate’s capabilities. If the assignments were reasonable
and if you decide the candidate was as well prepared as he or she is likely to
be then you must pick a new candidate and prepare them. Do not compromise in
hopes that the candidate will grow into the job after promotion. Whereas that
might happen you shouldn’t count on it. Remember that the failure was failure
of your judgment so do not punish the candidate.
looking forward, write a list of what is necessary for achieving a low turnover
rate besides an effective recruiting process.
a mathematical model to define the time required to recruit a new employee in
your group. Your model should include time for deciding a new employee is
needed, preparing, submitting and defending a requisition to hire, discussions
with the Human Resources people before they begin collecting resumes, screening
resumes, phone interviews, on site interviews, post offer discussion with the
candidate and orienting the new hire once on board. Assume percentages for
resume screening, other screening steps and offer acceptance rates appropriate
with your experience.
an organization of 100 people and a growth rate of 15%. Run your model to
determine how much time is required of top managers to grow their organizations
by 15% per year.
your staff for candidates to succeed you. If one, or hopefully more than one,
is available then begin to develop a mentoring plan to prepare the candidate(s)
for your job. If none are available then look for the opportunity to recruit a
Discussion of Exercises
If your experience with the
time it takes to be effective at the various steps in recruiting is similar to
mine you will have learned from exercises 2 and 3 that growing an organization
effectively takes a surprising amount of time. Inexperienced mangers often fail
to allocate enough time for recruiting and end up chronically understaffed for
much longer than necessary. In addition such failure can lead to an
organization not achieving the growth it could because there simply isn’t
enough staff to execute the work. If you have subordinate managers you must
make sure they are spending the time necessary for effective recruiting if your
organization is growing. Most mangers don’t like recruiting as well as their
other work and their other work always seems more time critical so they tend to
put off recruiting.
Your model also likely predicts
that there is a limit to the growth rate that can be accomplished and still
have time to execute other required work. Watch what happens when a new hot
shot CEO announces that his or her enterprise is going to double in three to
five years. Often such a strategy causes the enterprise to implode. There
simply isn’t enough time for the employees to win new business, execute the
high quality work that enables growth and develop the staff fast enough to
handle work well. (Exceptions occur in business areas that are very new and
therefore can tolerate growth problems better than a highly competitive
Your answer to exercise 1
should have included such statements as:
Satisfy Maslow needs
Fair salaries, Security,
Fair treatment, Help belong to team
Opportunity for self-esteem
Career development that is
constructive and meaningful
Managers that “removes
rocks from path” so workers can do their jobs (“Rocks” include poor processes, defective
equipment and oppressive policies and procedures)
Low Fear environment
Effective Time management; e.g. no long, non-productive
If so, you successfully
understand this part of the training.
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three lessons from the discussion of the “lost on the moon” exercise in lecture
·Teamwork in more effective than individual
efforts in solving complex problems.
·Effective teamwork doesn't just happen by
assigning people to a team. It’s important that they are trained or mentored in
how to work together in a way that utilizes the best knowledge and skills of
each team member.
·People must be in job assignments that match
their styles. Not every worker does well on a team; some are best as individual
two messages in our brief review of Stephan Covey’s teachings on habit 5 from
the The 7 Habits of Highly Successful
People in lecture 12. We learned that if we expect people to listen to our
logical arguments we must first establish our credibility with them, and
second, we must listen empathically to them until they are convinced we
understand their concerns and problems. Only if they are provided evidence that
we are someone they should listen to and only if they believe we understand
their situation will they listen effectively to us. The hardest part for most
people is listening empathically. Effective managers must learn this habit and
use it with their workers, their bosses and the customers for their work.
13-16 addressed fear in the workplace. Key points included:
•Fear of perceived consequences (real or not) causes
workers to avoid proper actions and substitute inappropriate or ineffective
•Managers induce fear by negativity, disloyalty to their
boss or to the enterprise and excessive emphasis on numerical goals.
•Oppressive policies and procedures written in attempts
to control the behavior of the 5% of workers that cause problems are
counterproductive. They cause fear and distrust in the many good workers and
don’t deter the few problem workers.
•A poor business environment can induce fear; counter
this fear with openness and honesty.
•Blaming people for problems caused by the system
–Remember the 85/15 rule. Problems are caused by
the system 85% of the time and by people only 15% of the time.
•Managers that focus on fixing the system and seeking
help from workers without expressing negativity build trust and reduce fear.
•Energy spent on issues you can influence is positive
and grows your circle of influence. Energy spent on issues you can’t influence
is negative and shrinks your circle of influence.
•Fear of change and of knowledge are inherent fears.
Managers have to deal with both and must learn to help workers overcome fear of
•Cultural change requires patience, persistence and
typically training time of about 10% of the total annual hours worked by the
You last reviewed and modified your action plan at the end of Lecture
13. Review your plan after studying the review of lectures 13- 16. Are there
changes or additions you should make based on what you have learned in lectures
14 - 16? If so, make the changes now.
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addressed all the topics on fear except fear of knowledge and fear of change.
These two fears are treated together and separate from the others because they
are inherent in the personality of people and not caused by either the
manager’s behavior or by organizational culture. This is a short lecture so
I’ll follow it with a review and work on your action plan.
Henry Ford is
credited with saying “Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at 20 or 80.
Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep
your mind young.” Unfortunately fear of
knowledge is an inherent fear. You can recognize it from comments made by
workers that sound like the following:
•“I can’t go to class, I’ll appear too ignorant”
•“I’m retiring in (1,2,3..) years. Why should I learn
•“I already know how to do it!”
•“What? Learn this? Why, then, I’ll have more
may not explicitly say the last part of the first and last statements but it is
what they are thinking.
knowledge is a challenge for the manager. Workers must retrain themselves more
and more often during their careers due to more and more rapid advances in
technology. Managers must make this clear and that retraining is expected as
part of the job and is a required skill for nearly any job. Peter Senge, in his
book The Fifth Discipline says that
the only advantage an organization can sustain is the capability to learn
faster than its competitors.
overcome their inherent fear. Even retirement does not relieve them of the
necessity to continually learn due to the rapid change of technology used in
daily life. The effective manager can help workers overcome their inherent fear
of knowledge by listening to their excuses (listening with empathy), being
sympathetic but firm in the requirement that they participate in training when
necessary and offering to help if needed. However, if you have done these
positive things and still have a worker whose fear of knowledge is preventing
the worker from keeping up with required training and/or technology change you
should look for another assignment for that worker. A manager is not required
to be a psychologist.
happening often in your organization? In today’s work environment your
organization is the exception if change isn't happening often. To mitigate the
damage to organizational effectiveness from fear of change you need to
understand that people react to change differently. Some relish change, some
fear change, some move out before having a plan, some are immobile until every
detail of the plan is explained. This is another example of where the effective
manager must treat workers as individuals. People’s response to change can be
explained by their personality type from Myers/Briggs or similar personality
tests. These tests are helpful in that they explain why people react the way
they do and help the manager realize that some workers are not just being
arbitrarily difficult, it’s inherent in their nature and they must be treated
as individuals to help them overcome their fear of change.
are some excellent books on managing change and it is worthwhile to own and
periodically reread at least one of them. For example tryone or more of the three books cited in
lecture 4 and Who Moved My Cheese:
An Amazing Way to Deal with Change in Your Work and in Your Life by Spencer Johnson and Kenneth Blanchard. If you have workers
that are exhibiting fear of change recommend that they read Who Moved My Cheese or Our Iceberg is Melting.
of change and fear of knowledge are primary reasons why changing an
organization’s culture is so hard and fails so often. As cited in lecture 4
research has shown that successful cultural change requires investment of about
10% of the total annual hours for an organization. A rule of thumb is that
management must spend 2% of payroll per year for 5 years to successfully change
an organization’s culture. (I am assuming here that an hour of time costs an
hour of pay.) This is the reason many management fads and quick fixes to
organizational problems don’t work. Even if the approach is fundamentally sound
organizations typically don’t spend the required time, energy or money to make
a successful cultural change.
succeed with change by taking small steps so they don’t create chaos in the
organization, by working through the details of each step and having the
persistence to overcome mistakes and errors of judgment (get help from experts
if possible). Managers that seek too big of a change in a single step or too
many changes at the same time risk throwing the organization into instability
and collapse. It is better to limit change to a series of relatively small
steps so that everyone that needs to change clearly understands each step and
has time to adapt. The keys to success are commitment, patience, persistence
and having the top manager lead the change by example.
what you are trying accomplish with the aid of this self training is to change
the culture of your organization so that it will be dramatically more
effective. Don’t expect to be successful without investing several years and
the time equivalent of 10% of the annual hours of your organization in training
your people. Make sure you lead any necessary changes. It is a lot of effort
but when you are successful you will realize a 20% or more increase in
effectiveness year after year. This is a very satisfactory return on
investment. If you are committed, patient and persistent than you can succeed
within the limits of the organizational culture that you can influence.
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Just like numerical goals there are good and bad policies and
policies affect the motivation of workers. Bad policies are demotivating just
like bad goals. Good and bad policies are described and examples of each are
presented in this lecture.
Organizational polices are unfortunately one of those necessary
things for which doing everything right only gets you to a neutral position
with respect to motivating people but bad organizational policies can destroy
trust and induce fear. This means that fixing bad policies can improve the
organizations effectiveness by removing the source of some of the mistrust and
fear that cause ineffectiveness. However, creating the world’s best policy
won’t do any more for effectiveness that an adequate policy that workers trust
and believe is fair. Therefore we want to concentrate on identifying and fixing
bad policies because they are a form of negativity.
How do we identify bad policies? There are a couple of easy
clues. Policies written for the 5% of employees that cause problems are rarely
effective with the 5% and usually alienate the 95% of employees that are
excellent workers, with the result that the productivity of the 95% is
reduced. This is because the 5% that
cause problems are almost professional problem causers. They ignore polices,
either good ones or bad ones. They typically don’t even consider policies or
treat them as if they are for others but not them. Some of these problem people
treat bad policies as a challenge to be overcome.
Managers have to deal directly with the 5% that are problem
causers, typically this means getting them out of the organization as they
don’t usually respond well to direct oversight or corrective action. Remember
the other 95% expects you, as the manager, to deal with these problem causers
and they expect you to change or get rid of problem people as long as you are
fair about it. This means giving them the chance to change, but firing them if
they don’t. If a manager doesn’t deal directly with problem people then the
manager loses the respect of the 95% and effectiveness is reduced.
Policies written for the 5% reduce effectiveness of the 95%
because the 95% see such policies as written for them as well as the 5% and
they reason that management has such policies because management doesn’t trust
them. They resent not being trusted and question whether they should trust
management. This resentment takes energy that should be directed toward
The second tip off to bad policies is that bad policies are
typically long, complex and often punishing. Why? Because they are intended to
thwart people that abuse simple policies, i.e. the 5%. It takes time away from
more important job functions for good employees to learn and comply with long,
complex and punishing policies. Such policies convey that the organization does
not trust the employee. For good reason because usually such policies are
written by managers who don’t trust employees. Recall that good employees feel
that if the organization does not trust them then probably they should not trust
the organization. If there is not an environment of trust then there is not an
environment of high effectiveness.
Managers can’t fix this perception of mistrust caused by bad
policies by telling the “good” workers that the policies don’t apply to them but
only to “bad” workers. Policies are necessary in any organization to provide
guidelines fair to all so this approach requires two sets of policies, either
two formal sets or a formal set and a set applied at the managers discretion.
It is far better to have a set of policies written for the 95%. The fact that
policies written for the 95% won’t work for the 5% is immaterial, no policies
will work for 5% except those that enable managers to remove people.
Some will argue that the bad policies are necessary; otherwise
it would be impossible to control the bad employees and fire them without data
in their personnel records. This is a misconception. Data in personnel files is
almost never of any aid in dealing with problem employees. In my personal
experience I have had to deal with numerous bad employees, typically left in
place by previous ineffective managers. I don’t recall ever finding anything
useful in any of these people’s personnel files. It was always necessary to
build the case for dismissal from scratch and good policies were just as
effective in eliminating such employees as bad policies.
At this point I must remind the student to not be hasty in
judging whether an employee is a “bad” employee. Don’t make judgments on the
basis of one assignment or one mistake. Be patient, if behavior is repeated
over and over then the manager can be sure of making the right decision. Note
that the manager must not act too hastily but must not let problem people
continue to cause problems. It is better to wait a little too long than to act
too hastily. People are forgiving if you take a little too long but they are
not forgiving if they think you have removed a “good” person by mistake.
Now let’s examine examples of bad and good policies:
If an employee is absent, arrives late or leaves early without
permission of the employee’s manager more than twice then the manager must file
a form 13 with the personnel department. If three form 13s are filed then the
employee must be referred to the personnel department for counseling.
If an employee needs time off for personal business then the
employee must notify the manager a full day ahead. The equivalent of two days
per year is allowed with pay if the manager is notified at least a full day
ahead. Violation of this policy will result in no pay for time away from the
Notify your manager as far in advance as you can if you need
time off for personal business or know you are going to be late or absent so
that the manager can plan work a rounds for your work.
Employees may take off the funeral day and up to two other
consecutive days off for deaths in the immediate family. An employee’s
immediate family is considered, spouse, children, parents, grandparents,
brothers and sisters, step-parents, son-in-laws, daughter-in-laws and parents,
grandparents and siblings of the spouse. The personnel department may require
verification of death if the employee takes time off for more than two funerals
in one year.
Make arrangements with your manager as early as possible if you
require time off to attend the funeral of a family member or close friend.
I have read that organizations that have changed from “Bad
Policies” to “Better Policies” have found that time away from the job
decreases. Why do you think this happens? The reason is that the better
policies foster trust and trust leads to commitment so that the employees take
off no more time than they need. Bad policies build distrust and undermine
commitment so that employees are likely to take the maximum time off permitted.
Review your organization’s policies on bereavement, personal
time off and absences from the job.
If your organization has good policies then you are fortunate
because this will help you build an effective organization. If the polices are
bad and you have the power to make changes then make changing the bad policies
part of your personal process improvement efforts. If the policies are bad and
you have no influence on them you are almost stuck. You cannot disown the bad
polices as that is a form of back stabbing and disloyalty to your organization,
which is a form of negativism that you must avoid. However, if your style
enables people to bring their problems to you then when one of the bad policies
causes one of your workers severe problems they are likely to tell you. You can
work with the worker and the human relations people to see if in such a case
there is a solution that helps the employee and is still fair to all. If you
make a sincere attempt to understand the worker’s situation and if you make a
sincere attempt to find a fair solution without badmouthing the bad policy, or
the human relations people if no solution can be found, then you are building
trust and your time spent is worthwhile.
If you find
that the pace of blog posts isn’t compatible with the pace you would like to maintain in studying this
material you can buy the book “The
Manager’s Guide for Effective Leadership” at:
introduces a better way to manage than blaming people for the manager’s
has problems and there is a right and wrong way to react to them. The wrong way
is to see people as the cause of the problems and expressing negativity. The
right way is to treat problems as the food for improvements; cost reductions
and productivity increases. If you are reacting the wrong way then the
corrective actions are first, practice and reinforce for others “not expressing
negativity”, and second, involve your people in process improvement. If your
organization is already involved in a quality improvement program, such as Six
Sigma, then you should know how to involve your people in process improvement.
If not then work on the first step for now and we will get to process
improvement training later.
To understand why blaming
people is wrong and improving processes is right we need to review what is
called the “85/15 rule”. This is one of those rules that have resulted from the
experience of many managers over a long time and is a fundamental basis for
process improvement efforts. This rule says that 85% of problems are due to the
system, not the people in the system. Therefore managers that blame people for
problems are wrong 85% of the time. This induces fear and lowers the
organization’s effectiveness. Managers that blame the system and attempt to
improve the system are right 85% of the time; an excellent “batting average” in
problem solving for managers. Remember that the system is the manager’s
responsibility even though workers may own the process involved. Only after
there is a fully trained, empowered and experienced workforce can the manager
relinquish some responsibility for improving the system.
A way to test how well you are
progressing in handling problems is to evaluate your degree of enlightenment as
a manager when problems arise. The higher you are on the following list the
higher your enlightenment is in reacting to problems.
•Changes system (high enlightenment)
•Blames no one
•Blames himself or herself
•Blames other(s) (low enlightenment)
chart in figure 5 below shows that if a manager reacts properly the reaction
creates a positive feedback, making it easier to handle future problems.
Figure 5. A
process for managing problems without inducing fear in individual contributors.
An effective manager
follows the process outlined in Figure 5 when problems occur. First the manager
avoids blaming people, i.e. expressing negativity, and instead questions
whether the system needs to be changed. Even if the problem arose due to a
mistake of a worker the manager should question whether the system can be
changed so that the same mistake won’t happen again or so that the workers job
is easier and less prone to result in mistakes. Typically, the problem is
associated with a process owned by a subordinate so the manager should seek help
and information from the subordinate. The details and tools associated with
process improvement are covered later but it is always better to have the
process owner involved in changing the process than having a manager do the
work. Effective process improvement focuses on the process, not the people, and
bases decisions on data rather than gut feel or intuition if at all possible.
described in Figure 5 results in happier workers because they don’t get blamed
for problems and managers demonstrate that they care enough to get involved and
help fix the system. This builds respect for managers, commitment to
organizations and improves motivation of workers.
problems faced in your organization over the past few months
to recall if you expressed any form of negativity. Think of specific incidents
blamed people for a problem that may have been a system problem
blamed the boss
down a better way you could have handled each incident
review the corrections to your action plan that you made after Lecture 13. Does
your plan include changing your approach to problem solving in a way that
raises your problem solving batting average and does not induce fear in your
organization. If so proceed with implementing the changes you have added to
analysis says you have habits that may be inducing fear you should change your
behavior. This is about the most difficult thing for anyone to do (change
behavior). Changing what we do is easy in comparison to changing how we behave.
First, we must be honest with ourselves and want to change. Then we must know
how to change. The key at this point is to avoid inducing fear, which
undermines the organizations effectiveness and our effectiveness as a manager.
If you find that the pace of blog posts
isn’t compatible with the pace you would
like to maintain in studying this material you can buy the book “The Manager’s Guide for Effective